What are the side effects of the ketogenic diet? It’s not uncommon for people beginning the keto diet to experience “keto flu” symptoms, which can include: irritability, cravings, menstruation issues in women, constipation, fatigue, headaches and poor exercise performance. These side effects are due to the body going through major metabolic shifts and essentially withdrawing from carbs and sugar.
Kidney stones are mineral deposits in the kidneys. They can be caused by multiple things–including dehydration, high sodium intake, family history, and excessively high consumption of protein (> 200g per day). A true ketogenic diet is low-carb, moderate-protein, and high-fat. So there’s no solid evidence that protein consumption at levels seen in a typical ketogenic diet could cause kidney stones.
After about two to seven days of following the keto diet, you go into something called ketosis, or the state your body enters when it doesn't have enough carbs for your cells to use for energy. That's when you start making ketones, or organic compounds that your bod then uses in place of those missing carbs. At this point, your body also starts burning fat for more energy, says Beth Warren, R.D., founder of Beth Warren Nutrition and author of Living A Real Life With Real Food.
The prospective study was carried out at the Academic Department of Surgery, Consultation and Training Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Jabriya, Kuwait) in 83 obese subjects (39 men and 44 women). The body mass index (BMI) of men and women was 35.9±1.2 kg/m2 and 39.4±1.0 kg/m2, respectively. The mean age was 42.6±1.7 years and 40.6±1.6 years for men and women, respectively. The mean age, initial height, weight and BMI for all patients are given in Table 1. Fasting blood tests were carried out for all of the subjects. Initially, all patients were subjected to liver and renal function tests, and glucose and lipid profiles, using fasting blood samples, and a complete blood count. Thereafter, fasting blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, blood sugar, urea and creatinine levels at the eighth, 16th and 24th week. In addition, weight and height measurements, and blood pressure were monitored at each visit.
I must tell you when looking at this link they say the American Diabetes Association Guidelines call for 60-75 carbohydrates per meal and that is simply not true. The ADA has recommended since 2013 we use our best clinical judgement in recommending a low carbohydrate diet for people with diabetes, recognizing it needs to be individualized. 60-75 grams is the carbohydrate amount I would give to a very tall, large boned man or perhaps an active teen or young adult. I would never recommend that many carbohydrates for an average size man who was trying to lose weight; he would get 45-60 grams of carbohydrates per meal and 15-30 grams for snacks. A women trying to lose weight would get 30-45 grams of carbohydrates per meal and 15 grams for snacks.
I am beside myself. I’m at the point that I’m afraid to eat anything. It goes right through me!! I’ve had liquid diarrhea for 3 weeks now and don’t know what to do. I’m up through the night and it’s really messing with my sleep. I have breast cancer and I really need to do this diet. I’m very worried. I have been taking psyllium husks but I’m afraid to go overboard. Is it ok to take that every day? Thanks you!
A number of studies suggest keto can disrupt the balance of good and bad bacteria in your GI tract (a condition called dysbiosis) due to high saturated fat intake and eating less fiber. Diets lacking in prebiotic fiber decrease probiotic, "friendly" bacteria as a result. Since the GI tract is considered the "bodyguard" of your immune system, this may impact your gut-brain connection, immune function, and chronic disease risk.
Kidney stones are a well-noted potential side effect of the ketogenic diet. Research published in the Journal of Child Neurology observed that among children following the keto diet as a treatment for epilepsy, 13 out of 195 subjects developed kidney stones. Children supplementing with potassium citrate in the study noticed a decreased likelihood of kidney stones. Speak with your healthcare practitioner about supplementing if kidney stones are a concern.
Meat is the only nutritionally complete food. Animal foods (particularly when organ meats are included) contain all of the protein, fat, vitamins and minerals that humans need to function. They contain absolutely everything we need in just the right proportions. That makes sense, because for most of human history, these would have been the only foods available just about everywhere on the planet in all seasons.
Nine healthy young males participated in this study, which appears in the journal Nutrients. The researchers asked them to follow a 7-day high fat, low-carbohydrate diet that was similar to the keto diet, consisting of 70 percent fat, 10 percent carbohydrates, and 20 percent protein. They also had to consume a 75-gram glucose drink before and after the diet.
Your glycogen stores can still be refilled while on a ketogenic diet. A keto diet is an excellent way to build muscle, but protein intake is crucial here. It’s suggested that if you are looking to gain mass, you should be taking in about 1.0 – 1.2g protein per lean pound of body mass. Putting muscle on may be slower on a ketogenic diet, but that’s because your total body fat is not increasing as much.5Note that in the beginning of a ketogenic diet, both endurance athletes and obese individuals see a physical performance for the first week of transition.
The Ketogenic Diet is a low carbohydrate diet, consisting initially of less than 20 carbohydrates per day. Not per meal, yes, you heard me correctly, per day. It is not for the faint of heart and yes I am writing from experience. Of course I have tried it! Hasn’t everybody in America at some point who has wanted to lose weight? Does it work you ask? Of course it does! The problem is how long can you keep it up?
In the first week, many people report headaches, mental fogginess, dizziness, and aggravation. Most of the time, this is the result of your electrolytes being flushed out, as ketosis has a diuretic effect. Make sure you drink plenty of water and keep your sodium intake up.6One of the fathers of keto, Dr. Phinney, shows that electrolyte levels (especially sodium) can become unbalanced with low carb intake.
Although various short-term studies examining the effect of a ketogenic diet in reducing the weight of obese patients have been carried out (10), its long-term effects in obese subjects are not known (15). Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of a ketogenic diet on obesity and obesity-associated risk factors in a large population of obese patients.
Casual chronic keto is at some risk of those same side effects. Sure, there are sporadic anecdotal cases where there appears (so far) to be no harm, but these are not large population RCTs. The KD-in-epilepsy data is closer to being RCT data. There being no ancestral case for chronic keto, we need to learn what we can from the formal studies (and sure, endeavor to separate the ailment, med and diet effects).
Thank you for your wonderful comments Marcia. To share more about me personally with you all…I am not a completely non-diabetic Certified Diabetes Educator. I found out I had Prediabetes 15 years ago when I became a Diabetes Educator. I tested my own A1c and found it was 5.8%. The incredible news? There have been years when my A1c dropped to a normal level of 5.4%…out of the prediabetes range. My last A1c in May was 5.8%, so I still have Prediabetes 15 years later, but not diabetes, and without any medication, just the sensible diet I’ve discussed and exercise, so I really am living with this. I feel it everyday, I wonder what my A1c is going to be just like you every 6 months when I go to have it drawn.
To understand what the keto diet is, you have to understand a little about how your body generates and uses energy for daily activity. All day, every day, your body undertakes a series of chemical processes (together referred to as metabolism) to break down and use a combination of carbohydrates and fats to produce energy. The energy produced is used for everything -- from breathing to brushing your teeth to running to catch a taxi. Your body is burning fuel constantly just to sustain basic life function. And while your body is always burning a combination of fats and carbohydrates, your brain’s primary fuel source is carbohydrates… and your brain requires a surprising amount of energy to get you through each day.
Early research suggests that the keto diet may slow the growth of cancerous tumors. “Cancer cells have plenty of insulin receptors on them, making them flourish in environments high in blood sugar and insulin,” says Brandon Olin, host of The Deskbound Podcast, which focuses on overcoming the damage of a sedentary lifestyle. “It’s essentially giving cancer cells a source of fuel to feed on and grow.” The research suggests ketone bodies may provide energy for your body without feeding the tumors.
In a recent study in the Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, Weiss and his colleagues found that participants performed worse on high-intensity cycling and running tasks after four days on a ketogenic diet, compared to those who’d spent four days on a high-carb diet. Weiss says that the body is in a more acidic state when it’s in ketosis, which may limit its ability to perform at peak levels.
Every day, you will notice how simple my methods are and how the secret fat burning meal plans will speed up the fat burning process even while you rest at night. Not everyone is the same, but after the first week with the 3-Week Ketogenic Diet, most people experience one or more of the following… more energy, 5lbs lighter, joint relief, self-motivation, happiness, and a positive change in their physiological states. After 3-weeks many people have anywhere from 3-9 pounds weight loss and 7-17 inches off their waist, hips, chest, and triceps.
Inadequate calories: Keto’s satiating qualities are a double-edged blade. They help us eat less and lose body fat without really even trying, but they can also sometimes lead us to eat too little. This can cause a reaction in your body to slow down metabolic function and make you feel generally less energetic at rest. One solution is to cycle periods of generally increased caloric intake, and increased intake of nutritious carbs by default. This suggestion is totally different from the suggestion to engage in purposeful carb refeeds, where you binge on nutrient-devoid carbs in the name of a cheat day. This is never advised for any reason.
While the exact mechanisms of ketones on brain health are still unclear, a 2017 paper in the journal Neurochemistry summarized what is known: ketones as fuel in the brain have been shown to enhance mitochondrial respiration, increase neuronal growth factors, strengthen the signal sent between synapses, reduce brain inflammation, and reduce oxidative stress. These effects, the paper noted, then seem to have downstream implications for a wide range of brain functional pathways.
While there have not been large studies that show the relationship between the ketogenic diet and cancer, we will be publishing a case study about that topic. The author failed to comment that pediatric patients with epilepsy are on the diet for usually about 2 years with no harmful effects. Before the false studies about heart disease and fat, the low carb diet was a respected way to lose weight. Studies into our metabolism show we can use both fat and carbohydrate as fuel. So stepping away from our high carb diet- I am sorry to say that we eat more carbs since the 70s with most of it processed and we now use high fructose corn syrup to sweeten products and we have a wide spread childhood obesity problem. If cholesterol is a concern try plant sterols and stenals to block cholesterol from the receptors in the body. So much more can be said about a keto diet than this article states
Also, consider supplementing with the amino acid leucine, as it can be broken down directly into acetyl-CoA, making it one of the most important ketogenic amino acids in the body. While most other amino acids are converted into glucose, the acetyl-CoA formed from leucine can be used to make ketone bodies. It’s also present in keto friendly foods like eggs and cottage cheese.
The data presented in the present study showed that a ketogenic diet acted as a natural therapy for weight reduction in obese patients. This is a unique study monitoring the effect of a ketogenic diet for 24 weeks. There was a significant decrease in the level of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and glucose, and a significant increase in the level of HDL cholesterol in the patients. The side effects of drugs commonly used for the reduction of body weight in such patients were not observed in patients who were on the ketogenic diet. Therefore, these results indicate that the administration of a ketogenic diet for a relatively long period of time is safe. Further studies elucidating the molecular mechanisms of a ketogenic diet are in progress in our laboratory. These studies will open new avenues into the potential therapeutic uses of a ketogenic diet and ketone bodies.
Several natural ingredients vitamins and minerals added in the ultra. Your body needs different kinds of vitamins which you don’t take in daily life. Vitamins C, D, F are the most used vitamins in keto ultra. These will help in advance losing heavyweight. The manufacturer of Keto ultra has added all these vitamins and minerals composition, which will always keep your body to maintain a healthy body and lose belly fats so fast.
In order to transition and remain in this state, aiming for about 30–50 net grams is typically the recommended amount of total carbs to start with. This is considered a more moderate or flexible approach but can be less overwhelming to begin with. Once you’re more accustomed to “eating keto,” you can choose to lower carbs even more if you’d like (perhaps only from time to time), down to about 20 grams of net carbs daily. This is considered the standard, “strict” amount that many keto dieters aim to adhere to for best results, but remember that everyone is a bit different.
Multiple sclerosis diet tips Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic condition that can lead to weakness and memory loss, among other symptoms. Some studies suggest that making dietary changes may help boost a healthy gut flora, which could improve symptoms. Find out more about which foods to eat and which to avoid, and get some lifestyle tips, too. Read now
During the first few weeks of the ketogenic diet, the body has to go through the "metabolic shift," as Dr. Mauro DiPasquale calls it. While going through this, the body will experience a small degree of fatigue, brain fog, and even dehydration due to the increased water loss associated with ketoic-induced diuresis and water loss from depletion of glycogen stores.
Ketoacidosis most commonly arises with people with diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs in response to a severe lack of proper insulin activity whereas alcoholic ketoacidosis is a harmful metabolic condition arising when someone consumes alcohol but no food, explains Michael J. Gonzalez-Campoy, MD, PhD, medical director and CEO of the Minnesota Center for Obesity, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, in Eagan, Minnesota. Either way, this is a dangerous situation.
I’m not Edward, but I’ve been on a keto diet for 3 weeks. I don’t find it difficult at all. I’ve attended 2 birthday parties, and it’s easy to say “No thank you” when I’m offered cake because my health is my top priority. Drinking a lot of water to support the kidneys is an absolute must. Also, supplementing sodium, potassium and magnesium keeps electrolytes in balance. A Naturopathic doctor is a great source of information on true lifestyle modifications.
The ketogenic diet is usually something that’s prescribed by a registered dietitian. For example, Jessica Lowe, a Keck School of Medicine of USC ketogenic dietitian, said she might prescribe it to a patient who has epilepsy, since there’s research that shows it can help control seizures. There’s also growing interest in whether high-fat diets could help with brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases, Lowe said. For the everyday dieter, Lowe said, it’s important to consult a registered dietitian.
And science is now catching up, this review paper on ketogenic diets as a form of cancer therapy concluded: “Although the mechanism by which ketogenic diets demonstrate anticancer effects … has not been fully elucidated, preclinical results have demonstrated the safety and potential efficacy of using ketogenic diets.. improve responses in murine cancer models”
It’s a fairly common scene for new keto dieters. Aubrey Marcus recently referenced a highly-disturbing stat that 25% of physicians still equate consuming dietary cholesterol with increased blood cholesterol, an association that has been unequivocally refuted by recent science. But before you accept AHA-sanctioned diet advice, determine if there’s actually a problem.
Constipation is the rule–as virtual elimination of dietary carbohydrates also means virtual elimination of prebiotic fibers that nourish bowel flora. Over time, this leads to metabolic distortions including a drop in HDL cholesterol, rise in triglycerides, rise in small LDL particles that lead to heart disease, rise in insulin resistance and blood sugar, rise in blood pressure, even if these parameters initially improved on the diet. This is also due to dysbiosis and lack of prebiotic fibers. While this has not yet been tracked in children, in adults we can expect that these distortions in bowel flora will, over time, also lead to heightened inflammation (bowel and elsewhere), diverticular disease (.e.g., diverticulitis), and colorectal cancer. Yes: prolonged ketosis can add substantially to risk for colon cancer. Other peculiar gastrointestinal complications of prolonged ketosis have also been observed, such as protein-losing enteropathies.
He has been on keto diet for at least 3 years now. I think that he is some proof that yes, it does work. And it may be that some people do need keto. However, I don’t believe that everyone needs keto diet to get reversal. I have had reversal with regular ADA diet in my clinic. Not just a few! Many have reversed. However, I just want for keto dieters to find a clinical trial. We do need more information. We must understand what happens in the long term on keto diet. I personally did Atkins years ago, which was 20 grams. I had a very hard time to stay on it. I lost 20 pounds, and then I did gain it back. I just could not live without some more carbohydrates than this allowed. I don’t know about being on 60 to 70 carbs, and staying in ketosis. It seemed I was out of it at 22 carbs. Anyway, this was not for me. Maybe it is for you. No one is saying that one should never go on a keto diet, but we are wary of it. We need more science behind it. Therefore, I am just going to put this out here now. I will paste it down the page so that others may see it. They are taking participants. If you fit the criteria, please help us to get more than people’s opinion about this diet. Then we can be more positive about it, and recommend it if the science is there. Here is the link to the clinical trial. Thanks for your comments:
A ketogenic diet is clinically and experimentally effective in antiepileptic and antiobesity treatments; however, the molecular mechanisms of its action remain to be elucidated. In some cases, a ketogenic diet is far better than modern anticonvulsants (25). Recently, it has been shown that a ketogenic diet is a safe potential alternative to other existing therapies for infantile spasms (27). It was further shown that a ketogenic diet could act as a mood stabilizer in bipolar illness (28). Beneficial changes in the brain energy profile have been observed in subjects who are on a ketogenic diet (28). This is a significant observation because cerebral hypometabolism is a characteristic feature of those who suffer from depression or mania (28). It has also been found that a ketogenic diet affects signal transduction in neurons by inducing changes in the basal status of protein phosphorylation (29). In another study (30), it was shown that a ketogenic diet induced gene expression in the brain. These studies provide evidence to explain the actions of a ketogenic diet in the brain.
Katie Wells, CTNC, MCHC, Founder and CEO of Wellness Mama, has a background in research, journalism, and nutrition. As a mom of six, she turned to research and took health into her own hands to find answers to her health problems. WellnessMama.com is the culmination of her thousands of hours of research and all posts are medically reviewed and verified by the Wellness Mama research team. Katie is also the author of the bestselling books The Wellness Mama Cookbook and The Wellness Mama 5-Step Lifestyle Detox.
I lived the last 10 years with this disease and a mentality of “Well all those other people around me are eating and drinking this stuff, so I want to be normal like them” I’m lucky that mentality didnt kill me. I’ve had A1C of 12, bad cholestoral in the high 600s and triglycerides of almost 2000. And yes, the author is right, our lives are ridiculously built around food. That’s why we have an obesity epidemic in this country. I am the only person I know that eats healthy. Everywhere I went for the last 10 years I was surrounded by food and drink. Oh well. Moderation is only the key for people with good genes. For people like me, sacrifice is the key. I don’t want a normal life anymore. Excuse my vulgarity, but I want energy, six pack abs, and a hard dick again. This disease wrecked my life and I’m never going back there again.
You can absolutely be in ketosis and eat 50g of net carbs a day. Maybe not everyone, but many people can maintain ketosis at that level of carb if fat/protein intake is OK. I have experienced this myself, and tested with blood keto meter. It would be interesting to test people who have been on the WB diet to see how me many are also in ketosis. I would bet a significant portion cycles into ketosis very regularly, and some are ketotic most of the time.
It’s the same with a keto way of eating: there is a ton of research and studies out there, and we KNOW that it works. Sure, more studies will come, and the new information will help us refine it, and we will learn how it specifically affects certain individuals in different ways…but the truth about the basics of it are all there, in the open, for all to see.
Low carb, high fat diets have been used for centuries by doctors when working with obese patients. William Banting published the widely popular booklet titled ‘Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public’ in 1863. In this booklet he explained how he had slimmed down by eating a diet high in fat void of carbs. The Banting diet was used for decades by individuals looking to lose weight.
Restricting carbohydrates. Studies show that after three or four days without carbohydrate consumption, your body starts tapping its fat storage also known as ketosis. You’ll want to stay between 25–35 grams of carbs to get into ketosis, and that requires bucking mainstream, carb-heavy, and supposedly nutrient-rich foods like fruit and grains. There are good carbs you can eat that will help you stay in ketosis. Be sure to look over these more keto diet friendly fruit options.
Author’s note: I want to stress again the importance of consulting with your doctor before you try ketogenic dieting. The more I study this area of science, the more I realize that every individual is extremely unique when it comes to health issues and there are a ton of reasons why you should NOT go full-on keto (especially if you are prone to kidney, heart, or gallbladder issues). That being said, for many people this form of eating is life changing, and the amount of scientific research supporting a ketogenic lifestyle is significantly increasing. Subscribe to my newsletter to stay posted when I publish new articles, and I’d appreciate any and all feedback/corrections on the content I’ve written above. Thanks! (Image credit)
In the first few days of the keto diet, it’s not uncommon for people to experience the “keto flu,” a brief period in which you may have headaches, fatigue, confusion, and nausea. These symptoms are a sign that your body is making the switch from burning glucose (sugar from carbs) for energy to burning fat—a process called ketosis. The changeover can leave you feeling depleted for a day or two, but once you break through to the fat-burning phase, you may find you have much more energy and greater endurance. “You are able to do more without hitting ‘the wall,’ says Carrie Burrows, PhD, a health and fitness expert. “When we use fat as fuel, our endurance improves and is more sustainable.” That extra energy will carry over to your workouts, Dr. Burrows says. Here are more things you need to know before starting the keto diet.
She has found that when women stick to eating a lighter dinner, and then abstain from eating for about 13–15 hours between dinner and breakfast, they experience improvements in their weight, blood sugar control, etc. She recommends that women try avoiding eating after 8 p.m. or experiment with eating only two meals per day, with tea or broth between meals to help curb hunger. Another option is to try skipping dinner altogether on 1–2 days per week. For most women, when attempting IMF, it’s not recommended to snack between meals unless the woman is very active (such as an athlete in training) or dealing with a hormonal issue such as adrenal burnout.
Perhaps the biggest anecdotal evidence on ketosis slowing down MS is the story of Dr. Terry Wahls. Dr. Wahls overcame being wheelchair bound after trying various drugs and conventional therapies without success. Eventually, she turned to dietary changes – including following a ketogenic diet – and a lot of her symptoms disappeared. She now lives an active life, riding horses and going on long treks. She shares her story and the protocol she developed in the book The Whals Protocol: A Radical New Way to Treat All Chronic Autoimmune Conditions Using Paleo Principles.
I take thyroxine 150mgs for my underactive thyroid issue. My dose does need to be adjusted regularly. I have gradually put weight on despite eating healthily & generally avoiding fats, because of a raised Cholesterol level. I can’t take Statins either because it causes muscle problem! All in all I am at a loss. I really want to lose my excess weight (28pounds). I have started the keto diet now & it’s a way of eating totally alien to me! I’m eating foods I never eat! I’m only a week in & am having dizzy episodes but am taking the steps to stop these but now I have read that having thyroid issues I should not pursue it. I’m really devastated. Can I get around this?
Considered a symptom of the keto flu, your breath on this diet often smells fruity at first. This is because acetone is a by-product of ketosis and is eliminated mostly through the lungs and the breath, according to a study in the journal International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health in February 2014. Acetone is a type of ketone known for having a fruity aroma in smaller concentrations. “It’s hard to say exactly how long it will last as it depends on the person, but it’s common for someone to experience this side effect for a few weeks,” says Asche.
In this study, researchers compared the impact of a low-carbohydrate diet and three other diets on blood pressure and other measures of cardiovascular fitness in women. After the 12 month trial, all subjects who successfully completed their respective diet experienced notable reductions in body mass, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol. Those in the low-carbohydrate diet group, however, had the best results.
One study from 2005 followed 22 people with Type 1 Diabetes for 12 months. The difference here however is they consumed 70-90 grams of carbohydrates per day versus the restrictive less than 20 grams per day on the Ketogenic Diet. Remember my motto? Moderation is the key! The results were positive; less hypoglycemia, insulin requirements were reduced and their A1c dropped from 7.5% to 6.4%.