The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and moderate-protein diet that has been proved to be an effective treatment among patients with epileptic conditions such as glucose transporter 1 deficiency, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, tuberous sclerosis complex, Rett syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and specific mitochondrial disorders (1, 2).
In the first few days of the keto diet, it’s not uncommon for people to experience the “keto flu,” a brief period in which you may have headaches, fatigue, confusion, and nausea. These symptoms are a sign that your body is making the switch from burning glucose (sugar from carbs) for energy to burning fat—a process called ketosis. The changeover can leave you feeling depleted for a day or two, but once you break through to the fat-burning phase, you may find you have much more energy and greater endurance. “You are able to do more without hitting ‘the wall,’ says Carrie Burrows, PhD, a health and fitness expert. “When we use fat as fuel, our endurance improves and is more sustainable.” That extra energy will carry over to your workouts, Dr. Burrows says. Here are more things you need to know before starting the keto diet.

Cutting out a whole food group (or in this case, more than one) is a dietitian’s worse nightmare. It not only makes it a really hard diet to follow, but also stresses the hell out of your body and makes it work a lot harder to keep up. In a US News & World Report’s review of 2018 diet, the ketogenic diet came in last place as a sustainable means to weight loss because of its restrictive nature.

Those issues can be part of what's known as the “keto flu,” Warren says. Other side effects of the keto diet, all of which are tied to carb withdrawal, can include lightheadedness, nausea, mental fog, cramps, and headaches, in addition to tiredness. Luckily, the keto flu doesn't usually last more than a week—which is coincidentally about when people start to see the number on the scale go down, says Warren.
If you experience symptoms like fatigue, intense hunger and cravings, light-headedness, or heart palpitations, this may be a sign your blood sugar has dropped too low. Use a blood glucose monitor to track your body’s response to the diet change and make sure your body is adapting properly. If necessary consult your physician for necessary medication changes.
Researchers are divided over whether the keto diet is good for people who don’t need to follow it for medical reasons. Since it doesn’t differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats, dieters are at risk of raising their cholesterol levels. And because the heavily restrictive diet cuts out most fruits and vegetables, it can also lead to nutrient deficiency. The Harvard Health Letter warned that with so much fat and protein to metabolize, keto practitioners may experience liver and kidney problems as well.  
I’ve been on the keto diet for about 3 months now. When I first started, I read all that I could online and a lot of the information is conflicting. One of the biggest mistakes that people make on the keto diet is thinking that they can eat all the fat they want and still lose fat, and that just doesn’t happen. Another one is that you should keep your protein consumption low and that is not correct either. The proper way to a keto diet is to consume 1 gram of protein per lean body weight, and keep fat under 100 g per day if you’re looking to lose fat. Also a weight lifting program helps tremendously, and you will gain muscle and lose fat at the same time instead of losing all that fat and then becoming a flabby skinny person.

In the first few days of the keto diet, it’s not uncommon for people to experience the “keto flu,” a brief period in which you may have headaches, fatigue, confusion, and nausea. These symptoms are a sign that your body is making the switch from burning glucose (sugar from carbs) for energy to burning fat—a process called ketosis. The changeover can leave you feeling depleted for a day or two, but once you break through to the fat-burning phase, you may find you have much more energy and greater endurance. “You are able to do more without hitting ‘the wall,’ says Carrie Burrows, PhD, a health and fitness expert. “When we use fat as fuel, our endurance improves and is more sustainable.” That extra energy will carry over to your workouts, Dr. Burrows says. Here are more things you need to know before starting the keto diet.
“Keto diets should only be used under clinical supervision and only for brief periods,” Francine Blinten, R.D., a certified clinical nutritionist and public health consultant in Old Greenwich, Connecticut, told Healthline. “They have worked successfully on some cancer patients in conjunction with chemotherapy to shrink tumors and to reduce seizures among people suffering from epilepsy.”
The truth is, I could have drank all the water in the world, and it wouldn’t have solved the problem, because the diet kept me from holding it. I was on the diet approximately six months when it started happening, with warning signs, in retrospect, a month before. When I wrote my story on a blog, I was contacted by a law firm who wanted to investigate my story, because they had a few other clients with similar experiences. I declined their services. 

Because it lacks carbohydrates, a ketogenic diet is rich in proteins and fats. It typically includes plenty of meats, eggs, processed meats, sausages, cheeses, fish, nuts, butter, oils, seeds, and fibrous vegetables. Because it is so restrictive, it is really hard to follow over the long run. Carbohydrates normally account for at least 50% of the typical American diet. One of the main criticisms of this diet is that many people tend to eat too much protein and poor-quality fats from processed foods, with very few fruits and vegetables. Patients with kidney disease need to be cautious because this diet could worsen their condition. Additionally, some patients may feel a little tired in the beginning, while some may have bad breath, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and sleep problems.
It’s no secret that the keto diet helps you lose weight, and quickly. That’s one of the main reasons why people are clamoring to try the high-fat, low-carb regime. But the keto diet benefits more than just your waistline. Passing on the bread is also good for your brain and your heart, plus it’ll keep you alive for longer. Read on to discover more about the benefits of the keto diet and how it can upgrade your performance, starting today.

Although many proponents recommend this high fat version of Keto for weight loss, it first gained notoriety as a treatment method for Epilepsy. Going as far back as the 1920’s, medical professionals have recommended high fat Keto Diets as a treatment method for difficult to control seizure disorders. However, a diet that includes a high percentage of fats as part of its eating program increases the daily caloric intake. More calories means slower fat loss. Therefore, the higher calorie count is why this Ketogenic Diet type is considered a slower weight loss model for dieters and is why the Ideal Protein Protocol is a more effective Keto Diet for weight loss.
There are numerous benefits that come with being on keto: from weight loss and increased energy levels to therapeutic medical applications. Most anyone can safely benefit from eating a low-carb, high-fat diet. Below, you’ll find a short list of the benefits you can receive from a ketogenic diet. For a more comprehensive list, you can also read our in-depth article here >
While people can argue back and forth about the role carbohydrates play in a healthy lifestyle, no one is going to say packaged snack foods are healthy. This is one of the areas where the ketogenic diet definitely succeeds because it eliminates the opportunity to eat highly processed foods, which are made almost entirely from sugar and other refined carbs. In a review published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the authors highlighted a number of studies showing a ketogenic diet can significantly improve insulin sensitivity for those with type 2 diabetes. They went so far as to say, “results have been nothing short of miraculous.”
When the body is first deprived of carbohydrates, usually felt at around 50 grams per day or less, the body starts with gluconeogenesis which is the body using stored glucose (glycogen) from the liver and muscles for energy. When the stored glucose can no longer keep up with energy demands, which will happen because there’s limited storage of glucose, the body turns to using ketone bodies for energy.

Most people already know about the keto flu, which can happen when you start the diet. It’s a result of the body adapting to the low-carb state. Lowering carb intake forces the body to burn ketones for energy instead of glucose. Once the body is in ketosis — burning fat instead of glucose — the keto diet is working. But you may not feel so great at first, hence the term keto flu.


You work out for a few months and get in shape and fall back to the old habits because you were not conditioned mentally, only physically. Physical fitness is only a part of journey, fitness is over 75% percent mental. Gyms, nutritionists, and personal trainers give most people a temporary Band-Aid but never address the actual issue. The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet includes secret mindset strategies to make your journey so much easier.
But beyond that, experts aren't convinced that the keto diet has any other scientifically-proven health benefits. In fact, it may have some distinct downsides. If you follow the keto diet incorrectly, for example (like by eating lots of saturated fats, versus healthy unsaturated fats), you're at risk of raising your cholesterol levels. “The best strategy to keep your heart healthy is to get as much fat as possible from unsaturated sources such as olive, avocado and canola oils, nuts, seeds, avocados, and olives," says Ansel.
The keto diet dates back to the 1920s, explains Michelle Hyman, MS, RD, CDN a registered dietitian at Simple Solutions Weight Loss. "The original keto diet was designed for patients with forms of epilepsy that were resistant to standard treatments. The macronutrient breakdown was designed to mimic the fasting state — which seemed to help with relieving seizures — yet provide energy and nutritions to function," Hyman says.
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Dirty keto diet: “Dirty” is the apt term, as these version of keto follows the same strict percentages (75/20/5 of fat/protein/carbs) but rather than focusing on healthy versions of fat like coconut oil and wild salmon, you’re free to eat naughty but still keto friendly foods like bacon, sausage, pork rinds, diet sodas and even keto fast food. I do NOT recommend this.
Starting in the 1970s, when the Atkin’s Diet book was first published, low-carb diets have caught the attention of many people trying to lose weight and improve their health. The ketogenic diet (KD), which is both very low in carbohydrates and also very high in fats, has become one of the most talked-about diets in the past several years. With its rise in popularity, it’s no surprise that the keto diet has recently been the focus of dozens of research studies.
“Suddenly and drastically reducing carbohydrates sets your body up for a double whammy of sorts,” says Yawitz. “The brain’s favorite fuel is glucose, which is most easily created from carbohydrates. In very-low-carb diets, the brain has to adjust to using ketones from digested fats for energy. To add to this discomfort, your kidneys release more electrolytes as insulin levels fall.” Additionally, your total body water decreases as carbohydrates become depleted on a keto diet, notes Clark. The result? What’s known as the keto flu, which could cause constipation, nausea, headache, fatigue, irritability, cramps, and other symptoms. Don’t fret, though: Many of these symptoms are short term and should last only a few days to weeks. Make sure to drink plenty of water to help your body cope with these symptoms. And call your doctor if symptoms — especially nausea — are prolonged, advises Yawitz.
I am a T2D, finally fully keto starting at the end of March. I am down 28 lbs. My goal is 50, so I am feeling encouraged and fitting into smaller sizes already. In May my A1C was 5.6. This morning, according to a home test kit I purchased from CVS, my A1C is 5. I believe that is fairly accurate based on my blood sugar readings, which are staying well below 100.
Consider Using Exogenous Ketones:  Providing pre-formed ketones takes stress off of the body and improves the bodies ability to use ketones as a fuel sources.  This, in turn, improves the bodies ability to make its own ketones and speeds up the keto adaptation process.  The best is when you take exogenous ketones with adaptogens which help stabilize blood sugar, improve the stress response and support your brain.  I recommend Keto Edge as the best all round exogenous ketone, adaptogen mix.
And science is now catching up, this review paper on ketogenic diets   as a form of cancer therapy concluded: “Although the mechanism by which ketogenic diets demonstrate anticancer effects … has not been fully elucidated, preclinical results have demonstrated the safety and potential efficacy of using ketogenic diets.. improve responses in murine cancer models”
These types of back-and-forth weight fluctuations can contribute to disordered eating, Kizer says, or can worsen an already unhealthy relationship with food. “I think this diet appeals to people who have issues with portion control and with binge eating,” she says. "And in many cases, what they really need is a lifestyle coach or a professional counselor to help them get to the bottom of those issues."
Unfortunately, there’s no long-term data on ketogenic diets versus other diets. In a 2015 Italian study, those on a ketosis diet lost 26 pounds in three months. About half of the participants stayed on the diet for a year but lost little additional weight in the next nine months. People in a 2014 Spanish study who followed a very-low-calorie ketogenic diet lost an average of 44 pounds in a year—but a third of them dropped out, possibly because it was too hard to maintain.

Your liver oxidizes fatty acids to produce three ketone bodies — β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone — that provide an alternative to glucose to fuel your brain and other tissues. And most organs, including your brain, thrive on ketones. Increased ketone levels replace glucose as your primary energy source, reducing need for gluconeogenesis and sparing protein breakdown. (4)
2. Gluconeogenesis occurs due to hunger, when your blood glucose levels are low. This process is when your liver breaks down glycogens (stored carbs) and turns them into glucose. This is a very ENERGY EXPENSIVE process. (You burn 3x the amount of ATP than you do during glycolysis and the branching of glycolysis, which is the process that turns glucose into things like ATP, CO2, RNA, NADPH, etc.) So yeah, gluconeogenesis does exist, but it’s to help keep us alive and keep glucose flowing to the brain.
Thank you for your wonderful comments Marcia. To share more about me personally with you all…I am not a completely non-diabetic Certified Diabetes Educator. I found out I had Prediabetes 15 years ago when I became a Diabetes Educator. I tested my own A1c and found it was 5.8%. The incredible news? There have been years when my A1c dropped to a normal level of 5.4%…out of the prediabetes range. My last A1c in May was 5.8%, so I still have Prediabetes 15 years later, but not diabetes, and without any medication, just the sensible diet I’ve discussed and exercise, so I really am living with this. I feel it everyday, I wonder what my A1c is going to be just like you every 6 months when I go to have it drawn. 

Combine that with the fact that your body is excreting more water, and you have a potential recipe for clogged pipes. You can keep things moving by getting some fiber from keto-friendly foods like avocado, nuts, and limited portions of non-starchy vegetables and berries, says David Nico, PhD, author of Diet Diagnosis. Upping your water intake helps, too.
First of all, I can’t deny the fact that people will lose weight on a keto diet. Here’s why. First of all, you’re eliminating a major food group. When you do that, you limit your food options and most likely your food intake, so it’s not rocket science that you’ll likely lose weight. Second, most people on a low carb diet tend to increase their protein intake in the absence of carbs and there is some evidence that consuming higher amounts of protein may have some weight loss benefits. The large recent study mentioned above also looked at fat loss and found that individuals following a keto diet lost about the same weight as individuals following a different diet when they ate the SAME amount of calories. However, the studies found that individuals on the keto diet tended to lose body weight quicker.
Sleep improvements are a bit more of a mystery. Studies have shown that ketogenic dieting improves sleep by decreasing REM and increasing slow-wave sleep patterns. While the exact mechanism is unclear, it likely is related to the complex biochemical shifts involving the brain’s use of ketones for energy combined with other body tissues directly burning fat.
Carbohydrates: Historically, a targeted keto diet consists of limiting carbohydrate intake to just 20–30 net grams per day. “Net carbs” is the amount of carbs remaining once dietary fiber is taken into account. Because fiber is indigestible once eaten, most people don’t count grams of fiber toward their daily carb allotment. In other words, total carbs – grams of fiber = net carbs. That’s the carb counts that matter most.
Once ketosis is established, most people experience more stable and lower blood sugar levels. Low-carb diets can be an effective way for people with type 2 diabetes to get a handle on glycemic control—and carb monitoring has long been thought to be an effective way to control blood sugar—though one study concluded low-carb diets are not necessarily a better long-term strategy than other diets. Anecdotal evidence abounds from people with type 2 diabetes who have used the keto diet to stabilize their blood sugar and were able to quit taking their diabetes medication. But it’s not recommended that people with diabetes begin the keto diet without first talking to their doctor.

What is the ketogenic diet exactly? The classic ketogenic diet is a very low-carb diet plan that was originally designed in the 1920s for patients with epilepsy by researchers working at Johns Hopkins Medical Center. Researchers found that fasting — avoiding consumption of all foods for a brief period of time (such as with intermittent fasting), including those that provide carbohydrates — helped reduce the amount of seizures patients suffered, in addition to having other positive effects on body fat, blood sugar, cholesterol and hunger levels. (1)
And while some fats can be healthy, there’s a risk that in following a high-fat diet, you’ll increase your intake of unhealthy trans and saturated fats. These “bad” fats are found in things like red meat, poultry skin, cheese, and butter, and can lead to an increase in LDL, or “bad” cholesterol and increased risk of heart disease. (14) This is a controversial issue, as some experts do recommend adopting a low-carbohydrate diet to lower heart disease risk. If you’re at risk or have heart disease, it’s important to speak with your doctor first about your health needs.
The diet that I’m calling ‘keto’ here, and is designed to put the person in ketosis (where we’re getting the ‘keto’ from), is called the ‘Modified Atkins Diet’ in most medical literature. In the Modified Atkins Diet (MAD) the benefits of the body being in a state of ketosis are seen, and it is thought that the unrestricted protein and calories will prevent the children’s growth from being stunted. (source)
In 2009, Drs. Eric Westman and Bryan Kraft published a case study and a review of the literature for a 70-year-old woman with life-long schizophrenia. Diagnosed at age 17, she had experienced daily visual and auditory hallucinations (skeletons that urged her to hurt herself) since the age of 7. She also had obesity, sleep apnea, hypertension, and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) among a number of other health issues. After only 8 days on the ketogenic diet, the voices and hallucinations stopped. At the time of publication she had continued the ketogenic diet for more than a year, with no return of hallucinations, and had lost more than 10 kilograms (22 lbs).
I have been on a low carb diet for over 2 years. I was diagnosed a diabetic with a blood glucose over 400 mg/dl and an A1C of 12. I tried my doctors recommendations for about a year and took all the medications they told me to take. not much changed. they wanted to put me on insulin after a year. I told my doctor that I thought I could control my condition with diet and he said, “you are to far gone for that”.

Although the ketogenic diet has been a source of controversy and debate, one cannot dispute its astounding health benefits. Initially, it was created by specialists at John Hopkins Medical Center, particularly for individuals who have epilepsy. The researchers established that fasting enhanced the number of seizures the patients experienced. Nonetheless, since fasting isn’t an accomplishable purpose nowadays, a diet has been developed that would trick the body into believing it was in that process.
When you restrict carbohydrates, the body begins to process electrolytes in a different way. This is because, under conditions of low insulin, the kidneys excrete more sodium. Since there is a delicate balance between sodium and other electrolytes in the body, this increase in sodium excretion can have a knock-on effect and disrupt other electrolytes as well.
2. Gluconeogenesis occurs due to hunger, when your blood glucose levels are low. This process is when your liver breaks down glycogens (stored carbs) and turns them into glucose. This is a very ENERGY EXPENSIVE process. (You burn 3x the amount of ATP than you do during glycolysis and the branching of glycolysis, which is the process that turns glucose into things like ATP, CO2, RNA, NADPH, etc.) So yeah, gluconeogenesis does exist, but it’s to help keep us alive and keep glucose flowing to the brain.
Constipation is the rule–as virtual elimination of dietary carbohydrates also means virtual elimination of prebiotic fibers that nourish bowel flora. Over time, this leads to metabolic distortions including a drop in HDL cholesterol, rise in triglycerides, rise in small LDL particles that lead to heart disease, rise in insulin resistance and blood sugar, rise in blood pressure, even if these parameters initially improved on the diet. This is also due to dysbiosis and lack of prebiotic fibers. While this has not yet been tracked in children, in adults we can expect that these distortions in bowel flora will, over time, also lead to heightened inflammation (bowel and elsewhere), diverticular disease (.e.g., diverticulitis), and colorectal cancer. Yes: prolonged ketosis can add substantially to risk for colon cancer. Other peculiar gastrointestinal complications of prolonged ketosis have also been observed, such as protein-losing enteropathies.
Keto cycling is a way to cycle in and out of ketosis while enjoying a more balanced diet on your "days off." One keto cycling approach includes five days of traditional keto diet and two non-keto days per week. Some people choose to save their off days for special occasions holidays, birthdays, and vacations. For best results, eat wholesome carbohydrate-rich foods on your off days, including fruits, starchy veggies, dairy products, and whole grains (rather than added sugars or highly-processed fare).
Those following the keto diet are advised to restrict carbohydrates to just 50 grams a day at the most, although hardcore keto dieters recommend consuming just 20 grams—about the equivalent of half a hamburger bun or a single banana. Instead, high-fat foods are prioritized, like avocados, olive oil, nuts and butter. Beef and chicken, which have no carbs, are staples of the ketogenic diet, although protein should only make up 20 percent of your daily caloric intake.  
After reading that article I have to say that the “USC experts” are full of it. It’s the usual scare stuff that the mainstream docs and dietitians trot out to attempt to discredit LCHF and keto diets. There’s no reason why a keto diet should be any worse for bone health than any other diet provided it has adequate calcium, phosphate and Vit K2 and you have good Vit D levels. As for the recommendations of dietitians – eat lots of healthywholegrains and “vegetable” oils but no saturated fats – we know what the long-term results are of that: diabetes, heart disease and osteoporosis.
Some people have trouble with the concept of high-fat and a moderate amount of protein. I have to admit. It was hard for me to wrap my head around it at first. Now I have even given up artificial sugar substitutes and diet products of any kind. It's even hard for me to call this a diet. After researching this eating style, I've learned it's a way of life.

I have multiple autoimmune diseases. I fought 4 doctors, all of whom told me that adults can’t get type 1. I finally went to the Jefferson Diabetes Center. Yup! Type 1 diabetes. I’m slender, do marathons, bp 100/60, triglyceride/HDL ratio 1.08. And I STILL fought 4 doctors because of the ADA misinformation. All it takes is a simple blood test to look at antibodies. That’s all it takes, but the test is almost never run.
However, the complete opposite occurred, practitioners began to lose excess body fat, feel healthier, and in some cases, issues of diabetes even began to subside. Nutritionists began to study the effect of a fat-based diet and its impact on human health, years later; the modified ketogenic diet emerged from the research and had been used with success in modern society.
Through experimentation, I have found that the best way to get into the metabolic state of ketosis is by starting off using a fairly high-fat intake with smaller amounts of protein. After your body gets into ketosis, the fat intake can be reduced and the protein intake can be increased. Keep in mind that keto-adapation takes about three weeks, so be patient!
Increases in cholesterol levels need discussion too. We do see temporary increases in cholesterol levels often as individuals transition onto a ketogenic diet. However, when you examine lipid particle size (a more important way to look at the cardiovascular risks), the risk pattern doesn’t seem to increase with a ketogenic diet. Harvard Health has written about lipid particle size here before: http://www.health.harvard.edu/womens-health/should-you-seek-advanced-cholesterol-testing-
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